"Thailand - A royal decree has been issued seeking to regulate virtual currency transaction by mandating brokers and sellers of cryptocurrencies to register with the Security Exchange Commission (SEC). https://t.co/WT7DZvfE37" $btc $ltc $neo $eth #btc #bitcoin #crypto #ethereum
[uncensored-r/Bitcoin] Watch the SEC's hearing on virtual currencies and live here.
The following post by Sektion31 is being replicated because the post has been silently removed. The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link: np.reddit.com/ Bitcoin/comments/7vo3xk The original post's content was as follows:
Cosmos is a heterogeneous network of many independent parallel blockchains, each powered by classical BFT consensus algorithms like Tendermint. Developers can easily build custom application specific blockchains, called Zones, through the Cosmos SDK framework. These Zones connect to Hubs, which are specifically designed to connect zones together. The vision of Cosmos is to have thousands of Zones and Hubs that are Interoperable through the Inter-Blockchain Communication Protocol (IBC). Cosmos can also connect to other systems through peg zones, which are specifically designed zones that each are custom made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. Cosmos does not use Sharding with each Zone and Hub being sovereign with their own validator set. For a more in-depth look at Cosmos and provide more reference to points made in this article, please see my three part series — Part One, Part Two, Part Three https://youtu.be/Eb8xkDi_PUg
Polkadot is a heterogeneous blockchain protocol that connects multiple specialised blockchains into one unified network. It achieves scalability through a sharding infrastructure with multiple blockchains running in parallel, called parachains, that connect to a central chain called the Relay Chain. Developers can easily build custom application specific parachains through the Substrate development framework. The relay chain validates the state transition of connected parachains, providing shared state across the entire ecosystem. If the Relay Chain must revert for any reason, then all of the parachains would also revert. This is to ensure that the validity of the entire system can persist, and no individual part is corruptible. The shared state makes it so that the trust assumptions when using parachains are only those of the Relay Chain validator set, and no other. Interoperability is enabled between parachains through Cross-Chain Message Passing (XCMP) protocol and is also possible to connect to other systems through bridges, which are specifically designed parachains or parathreads that each are custom made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. The hope is to have 100 parachains connect to the relay chain. For a more in-depth look at Polkadot and provide more reference to points made in this article, please see my three part series — Part One, Part Two, Part Three https://youtu.be/_-k0xkooSlA
Avalanche is a platform of platforms, ultimately consisting of thousands of subnets to form a heterogeneous interoperable network of many blockchains, that takes advantage of the revolutionary Avalanche Consensus protocols to provide a secure, globally distributed, interoperable and trustless framework offering unprecedented decentralisation whilst being able to comply with regulatory requirements. Avalanche allows anyone to create their own tailor-made application specific blockchains, supporting multiple custom virtual machines such as EVM and WASM and written in popular languages like Go (with others coming in the future) rather than lightly used, poorly-understood languages like Solidity. This virtual machine can then be deployed on a custom blockchain network, called a subnet, which consist of a dynamic set of validators working together to achieve consensus on the state of a set of many blockchains where complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. Avalanche was built with serving financial markets in mind. It has native support for easily creating and trading digital smart assets with complex custom rule sets that define how the asset is handled and traded to ensure regulatory compliance can be met. Interoperability is enabled between blockchains within a subnet as well as between subnets. Like Cosmos and Polkadot, Avalanche is also able to connect to other systems through bridges, through custom virtual machines made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. For a more in-depth look at Avalanche and provide more reference to points made in this article, please see here and here https://youtu.be/mWBzFmzzBAg
Comparison between Cosmos, Polkadot and Avalanche
A frequent question I see being asked is how Cosmos, Polkadot and Avalanche compare? Whilst there are similarities there are also a lot of differences. This article is not intended to be an extensive in-depth list, but rather an overview based on some of the criteria that I feel are most important. For a more in-depth view I recommend reading the articles for each of the projects linked above and coming to your own conclusions. I want to stress that it’s not a case of one platform being the killer of all other platforms, far from it. There won’t be one platform to rule them all, and too often the tribalism has plagued this space. Blockchains are going to completely revolutionise most industries and have a profound effect on the world we know today. It’s still very early in this space with most adoption limited to speculation and trading mainly due to the limitations of Blockchain and current iteration of Ethereum, which all three of these platforms hope to address. For those who just want a quick summary see the image at the bottom of the article. With that said let’s have a look
Each Zone and Hub in Cosmos is capable of up to around 1000 transactions per second with bandwidth being the bottleneck in consensus. Cosmos aims to have thousands of Zones and Hubs all connected through IBC. There is no limit on the number of Zones / Hubs that can be created
Parachains in Polkadot are also capable of up to around 1500 transactions per second. A portion of the parachain slots on the Relay Chain will be designated as part of the parathread pool, the performance of a parachain is split between many parathreads offering lower performance and compete amongst themselves in a per-block auction to have their transactions included in the next relay chain block. The number of parachains is limited by the number of validators on the relay chain, they hope to be able to achieve 100 parachains.
Avalanche is capable of around 4500 transactions per second per subnet, this is based on modest hardware requirements to ensure maximum decentralisation of just 2 CPU cores and 4 GB of Memory and with a validator size of over 2,000 nodes. Performance is CPU-bound and if higher performance is required then more specialised subnets can be created with higher minimum requirements to be able to achieve 10,000 tps+ in a subnet. Avalanche aims to have thousands of subnets (each with multiple virtual machines / blockchains) all interoperable with each other. There is no limit on the number of Subnets that can be created.
All three platforms offer vastly superior performance to the likes of Bitcoin and Ethereum 1.0. Avalanche with its higher transactions per second, no limit on the number of subnets / blockchains that can be created and the consensus can scale to potentially millions of validators all participating in consensus scores ✅✅✅. Polkadot claims to offer more tps than cosmos, but is limited to the number of parachains (around 100) whereas with Cosmos there is no limit on the number of hubs / zones that can be created. Cosmos is limited to a fairly small validator size of around 200 before performance degrades whereas Polkadot hopes to be able to reach 1000 validators in the relay chain (albeit only a small number of validators are assigned to each parachain). Thus Cosmos and Polkadot scores ✅✅ https://preview.redd.it/ththwq5qdhq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=92f75152c90d984911db88ed174ebf3a147ca70d
Tendermint consensus is limited to around 200 validators before performance starts to degrade. Whilst there is the Cosmos Hub it is one of many hubs in the network and there is no central hub or limit on the number of zones / hubs that can be created.
Polkadot has 1000 validators in the relay chain and these are split up into a small number that validate each parachain (minimum of 14). The relay chain is a central point of failure as all parachains connect to it and the number of parachains is limited depending on the number of validators (they hope to achieve 100 parachains). Due to the limited number of parachain slots available, significant sums of DOT will need to be purchased to win an auction to lease the slot for up to 24 months at a time. Thus likely to lead to only those with enough funds to secure a parachain slot. Parathreads are however an alternative for those that require less and more varied performance for those that can’t secure a parachain slot.
Avalanche consensus scan scale to tens of thousands of validators, even potentially millions of validators all participating in consensus through repeated sub-sampling. The more validators, the faster the network becomes as the load is split between them. There are modest hardware requirements so anyone can run a node and there is no limit on the number of subnets / virtual machines that can be created.
Avalanche offers unparalleled decentralisation using its revolutionary consensus protocols that can scale to millions of validators all participating in consensus at the same time. There is no limit to the number of subnets and virtual machines that can be created, and they can be created by anyone for a small fee, it scores ✅✅✅. Cosmos is limited to 200 validators but no limit on the number of zones / hubs that can be created, which anyone can create and scores ✅✅. Polkadot hopes to accommodate 1000 validators in the relay chain (albeit these are split amongst each of the parachains). The number of parachains is limited and maybe cost prohibitive for many and the relay chain is a ultimately a single point of failure. Whilst definitely not saying it’s centralised and it is more decentralised than many others, just in comparison between the three, it scores ✅ https://preview.redd.it/lv2h7g9sdhq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=56eada6e8c72dbb4406d7c5377ad15608bcc730e
Tendermint consensus used in Cosmos reaches finality within 6 seconds. Cosmos consists of many Zones and Hubs that connect to each other. Communication between 2 zones could pass through many hubs along the way, thus also can contribute to latency times depending on the path taken as explained in part two of the articles on Cosmos. It doesn’t need to wait for an extended period of time with risk of rollbacks.
Polkadot provides a Hybrid consensus protocol consisting of Block producing protocol, BABE, and then a finality gadget called GRANDPA that works to agree on a chain, out of many possible forks, by following some simpler fork choice rule. Rather than voting on every block, instead it reaches agreements on chains. As soon as more than 2/3 of validators attest to a chain containing a certain block, all blocks leading up to that one are finalized at once. If an invalid block is detected after it has been finalised then the relay chain would need to be reverted along with every parachain. This is particularly important when connecting to external blockchains as those don’t share the state of the relay chain and thus can’t be rolled back. The longer the time period, the more secure the network is, as there is more time for additional checks to be performed and reported but at the expense of finality. Finality is reached within 60 seconds between parachains but for external ecosystems like Ethereum their state obviously can’t be rolled back like a parachain and so finality will need to be much longer (60 minutes was suggested in the whitepaper) and discussed in more detail in part three
Avalanche consensus achieves finality within 3 seconds, with most happening sub 1 second, immutable and completely irreversible. Any subnet can connect directly to another without having to go through multiple hops and any VM can talk to another VM within the same subnet as well as external subnets. It doesn’t need to wait for an extended period of time with risk of rollbacks.
With regards to performance far too much emphasis is just put on tps as a metric, the other equally important metric, if not more important with regards to finance is latency. Throughput measures the amount of data at any given time that it can handle whereas latency is the amount of time it takes to perform an action. It’s pointless saying you can process more transactions per second than VISA when it takes 60 seconds for a transaction to complete. Low latency also greatly increases general usability and customer satisfaction, nowadays everyone expects card payments, online payments to happen instantly. Avalanche achieves the best results scoring ✅✅✅, Cosmos with comes in second with 6 second finality ✅✅ and Polkadot with 60 second finality (which may be 60 minutes for external blockchains) scores ✅ https://preview.redd.it/qe8e5ltudhq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=18a2866104590f81a818690337f9121161dda890
Every Zone and Hub in Cosmos has their own validator set and different trust assumptions. Cosmos are researching a shared security model where a Hub can validate the state of connected zones for a fee but not released yet. Once available this will make shared security optional rather than mandatory.
Shared Security is mandatory with Polkadot which uses a Shared State infrastructure between the Relay Chain and all of the connected parachains. If the Relay Chain must revert for any reason, then all of the parachains would also revert. Every parachain makes the same trust assumptions, and as such the relay chain validates state transition and enables seamless interoperability between them. In return for this benefit, they have to purchase DOT and win an auction for one of the available parachain slots. However, parachains can’t just rely on the relay chain for their security, they will also need to implement censorship resistance measures and utilise proof of work / proof of stake for each parachain as well as discussed in part three, thus parachains can’t just rely on the security of the relay chain, they need to ensure sybil resistance mechanisms using POW and POS are implemented on the parachain as well.
A subnet in Avalanche consists of a dynamic set of validators working together to achieve consensus on the state of a set of many blockchains where complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. So unlike in Cosmos where each zone / hub has their own validators, A subnet can validate a single or many virtual machines / blockchains with a single validator set. Shared security is optional
Shared security is mandatory in polkadot and a key design decision in its infrastructure. The relay chain validates the state transition of all connected parachains and thus scores ✅✅✅. Subnets in Avalanche can validate state of either a single or many virtual machines. Each subnet can have their own token and shares a validator set, where complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. It scores ✅ ✅. Every Zone and Hub in cosmos has their own validator set / token but research is underway to have the hub validate the state transition of connected zones, but as this is still early in the research phase scores ✅ for now. https://preview.redd.it/0mnvpnzwdhq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=8927ff2821415817265be75c59261f83851a2791
The Cosmos project started in 2016 with an ICO held in April 2017. There are currently around 50 projects building on the Cosmos SDK with a full list can be seen here and filtering for Cosmos SDK . Not all of the projects will necessarily connect using native cosmos sdk and IBC and some have forked parts of the Cosmos SDK and utilise the tendermint consensus such as Binance Chain but have said they will connect in the future.
The Polkadot project started in 2016 with an ICO held in October 2017. There are currently around 70 projects building on Substrate and a full list can be seen here and filtering for Substrate Based. Like with Cosmos not all projects built using substrate will necessarily connect to Polkadot and parachains or parathreads aren’t currently implemented in either the Live or Test network (Kusama) as of the time of this writing.
Avalanche in comparison started much later with Ava Labs being founded in 2018. Avalanche held it’s ICO in July 2020. Due to lot shorter time it has been in development, the number of projects confirmed are smaller with around 14 projects currently building on Avalanche. Due to the customisability of the platform though, many virtual machines can be used within a subnet making the process incredibly easy to port projects over. As an example, it will launch with the Ethereum Virtual Machine which enables byte for byte compatibility and all the tooling like Metamask, Truffle etc. will work, so projects can easily move over to benefit from the performance, decentralisation and low gas fees offered. In the future Cosmos and Substrate virtual machines could be implemented on Avalanche.
Whilst it’s still early for all 3 projects (and the entire blockchain space as a whole), there is currently more projects confirmed to be building on Cosmos and Polkadot, mostly due to their longer time in development. Whilst Cosmos has fewer projects, zones are implemented compared to Polkadot which doesn’t currently have parachains. IBC to connect zones and hubs together is due to launch Q2 2021, thus both score ✅✅✅. Avalanche has been in development for a lot shorter time period, but is launching with an impressive feature set right from the start with ability to create subnets, VMs, assets, NFTs, permissioned and permissionless blockchains, cross chain atomic swaps within a subnet, smart contracts, bridge to Ethereum etc. Applications can easily port over from other platforms and use all the existing tooling such as Metamask / Truffle etc but benefit from the performance, decentralisation and low gas fees offered. Currently though just based on the number of projects in comparison it scores ✅. https://preview.redd.it/rsctxi6zdhq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=ff762dea3cfc2aaaa3c8fc7b1070d5be6759aac2
Cosmos enables permissioned and permissionless zones which can connect to each other with the ability to have full control over who validates the blockchain. For permissionless zones each zone / hub can have their own token and they are in control who validates.
With polkadot the state transition is performed by a small randomly selected assigned group of validators from the relay chain plus with the possibility that state is rolled back if an invalid transaction of any of the other parachains is found. This may pose a problem for enterprises that need complete control over who performs validation for regulatory reasons. In addition due to the limited number of parachain slots available Enterprises would have to acquire and lock up large amounts of a highly volatile asset (DOT) and have the possibility that they are outbid in future auctions and find they no longer can have their parachain validated and parathreads don’t provide the guaranteed performance requirements for the application to function.
Avalanche enables permissioned and permissionless subnets and complex rulesets can be configured to meet regulatory compliance. For example a subnet can be created where its mandatory that all validators are from a certain legal jurisdiction, or they hold a specific license and regulated by the SEC etc. Subnets are also able to scale to tens of thousands of validators, and even potentially millions of nodes, all participating in consensus so every enterprise can run their own node rather than only a small amount. Enterprises don’t have to hold large amounts of a highly volatile asset, but instead pay a fee in AVAX for the creation of the subnets and blockchains which is burnt.
Avalanche provides the customisability to run private permissioned blockchains as well as permissionless where the enterprise is in control over who validates the blockchain, with the ability to use complex rulesets to meet regulatory compliance, thus scores ✅✅✅. Cosmos is also able to run permissioned and permissionless zones / hubs so enterprises have full control over who validates a blockchain and scores ✅✅. Polkadot requires locking up large amounts of a highly volatile asset with the possibility of being outbid by competitors and being unable to run the application if the guaranteed performance is required and having to migrate away. The relay chain validates the state transition and can roll back the parachain should an invalid block be detected on another parachain, thus scores ✅. https://preview.redd.it/7phaylb1ehq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=d86d2ec49de456403edbaf27009ed0e25609fbff
Cosmos will connect Hubs and Zones together through its IBC protocol (due to release in Q1 2020). Connecting to blockchains outside of the Cosmos ecosystem would either require the connected blockchain to fork their code to implement IBC or more likely a custom “Peg Zone” will be created specific to work with a particular blockchain it’s trying to bridge to such as Ethereum etc. Each Zone and Hub has different trust levels and connectivity between 2 zones can have different trust depending on which path it takes (this is discussed more in this article). Finality time is low at 6 seconds, but depending on the number of hops, this can increase significantly.
Polkadot’s shared state means each parachain that connects shares the same trust assumptions, of the relay chain validators and that if one blockchain needs to be reverted, all of them will need to be reverted. Interoperability is enabled between parachains through Cross-Chain Message Passing (XCMP) protocol and is also possible to connect to other systems through bridges, which are specifically designed parachains or parathreads that each are custom made to interact with another ecosystem such as Ethereum and Bitcoin. Finality time between parachains is around 60 seconds, but longer will be needed (initial figures of 60 minutes in the whitepaper) for connecting to external blockchains. Thus limiting the appeal of connecting two external ecosystems together through Polkadot. Polkadot is also limited in the number of Parachain slots available, thus limiting the amount of blockchains that can be bridged. Parathreads could be used for lower performance bridges, but the speed of future blockchains is only going to increase.
A subnet can validate multiple virtual machines / blockchains and all blockchains within a subnet share the same trust assumptions / validator set, enabling cross chain interoperability. Interoperability is also possible between any other subnet, with the hope Avalanche will consist of thousands of subnets. Each subnet may have a different trust level, but as the primary network consists of all validators then this can be used as a source of trust if required. As Avalanche supports many virtual machines, bridges to other ecosystems are created by running the connected virtual machine. There will be an Ethereum bridge using the EVM shortly after mainnet. Finality time is much faster at sub 3 seconds (with most happening under 1 second) with no chance of rolling back so more appealing when connecting to external blockchains.
All 3 systems are able to perform interoperability within their ecosystem and transfer assets as well as data, as well as use bridges to connect to external blockchains. Cosmos has different trust levels between its zones and hubs and can create issues depending on which path it takes and additional latency added. Polkadot provides the same trust assumptions for all connected parachains but has long finality and limited number of parachain slots available. Avalanche provides the same trust assumptions for all blockchains within a subnet, and different trust levels between subnets. However due to the primary network consisting of all validators it can be used for trust. Avalanche also has a much faster finality time with no limitation on the number of blockchains / subnets / bridges that can be created. Overall all three blockchains excel with interoperability within their ecosystem and each score ✅✅. https://preview.redd.it/l775gue3ehq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=b7c4b5802ceb1a9307bd2a8d65f393d1bcb0d7c6
The ATOM token is the native token for the Cosmos Hub. It is commonly mistaken by people that think it’s the token used throughout the cosmos ecosystem, whereas it’s just used for one of many hubs in Cosmos, each with their own token. Currently ATOM has little utility as IBC isn’t released and has no connections to other zones / hubs. Once IBC is released zones may prefer to connect to a different hub instead and so ATOM is not used. ATOM isn’t a fixed capped supply token and supply will continuously increase with a yearly inflation of around 10% depending on the % staked. The current market cap for ATOM as of the time of this writing is $1 Billion with 203 million circulating supply. Rewards can be earnt through staking to offset the dilution caused by inflation. Delegators can also get slashed and lose a portion of their ATOM should the validator misbehave.
Polkadot’s native token is DOT and it’s used to secure the Relay Chain. Each parachain needs to acquire sufficient DOT to win an auction on an available parachain lease period of up to 24 months at a time. Parathreads have a fixed fee for registration that would realistically be much lower than the cost of acquiring a parachain slot and compete with other parathreads in a per-block auction to have their transactions included in the next relay chain block. DOT isn’t a fixed capped supply token and supply will continuously increase with a yearly inflation of around 10% depending on the % staked. The current market cap for DOT as of the time of this writing is $4.4 Billion with 852 million circulating supply. Delegators can also get slashed and lose their DOT (potentially 100% of their DOT for serious attacks) should the validator misbehave.
AVAX is the native token for the primary network in Avalanche. Every validator of any subnet also has to validate the primary network and stake a minimum of 2000 AVAX. There is no limit to the number of validators like other consensus methods then this can cater for tens of thousands even potentially millions of validators. As every validator validates the primary network, this can be a source of trust for interoperability between subnets as well as connecting to other ecosystems, thus increasing amount of transaction fees of AVAX. There is no slashing in Avalanche, so there is no risk to lose your AVAX when selecting a validator, instead rewards earnt for staking can be slashed should the validator misbehave. Because Avalanche doesn’t have direct slashing, it is technically possible for someone to both stake AND deliver tokens for something like a flash loan, under the invariant that all tokens that are staked are returned, thus being able to make profit with staked tokens outside of staking itself. There will also be a separate subnet for Athereum which is a ‘spoon,’ or friendly fork, of Ethereum, which benefits from the Avalanche consensus protocol and applications in the Ethereum ecosystem. It’s native token ATH will be airdropped to ETH holders as well as potentially AVAX holders as well. This can be done for other blockchains as well. Transaction fees on the primary network for all 3 of the blockchains as well as subscription fees for creating a subnet and blockchain are paid in AVAX and are burnt, creating deflationary pressure. AVAX is a fixed capped supply of 720 million tokens, creating scarcity rather than an unlimited supply which continuously increase of tokens at a compounded rate each year like others. Initially there will be 360 tokens minted at Mainnet with vesting periods between 1 and 10 years, with tokens gradually unlocking each quarter. The Circulating supply is 24.5 million AVAX with tokens gradually released each quater. The current market cap of AVAX is around $100 million.
Avalanche’s AVAX with its fixed capped supply, deflationary pressure, very strong utility, potential to receive air drops and low market cap, means it scores ✅✅✅. Polkadot’s DOT also has very strong utility with the need for auctions to acquire parachain slots, but has no deflationary mechanisms, no fixed capped supply and already valued at $3.8 billion, therefore scores ✅✅. Cosmos’s ATOM token is only for the Cosmos Hub, of which there will be many hubs in the ecosystem and has very little utility currently. (this may improve once IBC is released and if Cosmos hub actually becomes the hub that people want to connect to and not something like Binance instead. There is no fixed capped supply and currently valued at $1.1 Billion, so scores ✅. https://preview.redd.it/zb72eto5ehq51.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=0ee102a2881d763296ad9ffba20667f531d2fd7a All three are excellent projects and have similarities as well as many differences. Just to reiterate this article is not intended to be an extensive in-depth list, but rather an overview based on some of the criteria that I feel are most important. For a more in-depth view I recommend reading the articles for each of the projects linked above and coming to your own conclusions, you may have different criteria which is important to you, and score them differently. There won’t be one platform to rule them all however, with some uses cases better suited to one platform over another, and it’s not a zero-sum game. Blockchain is going to completely revolutionize industries and the Internet itself. The more projects researching and delivering breakthrough technology the better, each learning from each other and pushing each other to reach that goal earlier. The current market is a tiny speck of what’s in store in terms of value and adoption and it’s going to be exciting to watch it unfold. https://preview.redd.it/fwi3clz7ehq51.png?width=1388&format=png&auto=webp&s=c91c1645a4c67defd5fc3aaec84f4a765e1c50b6
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Is crypto staking a certificate of deposit? i.e. a security for US GOV purposes
Note: I am not a lawyer, I just read. TLDR: Crypto staking is an unregulated security which DOES fall under the securities act of 1933, and this means rapidly altering interest rates for investors of CRO staking very likely constituted a felony in the United States. And no, terms of service do not, ever, supersede federal law. You cannot sign away your rights. Long version: The SEC website defines a certificate of deposit as: "A certificate of deposit (CD) is a savings account that holds a fixed amount of money for a fixed period of time, such as six months, one year, or five years, and in exchange, the issuing bank pays interest." (Source: https://www.investor.gov/introduction-investing/investing-basics/investment-products/certificates-deposit-cds) Crypto staking is a newer concept as far as laws and regulations go. While Bitcoin and Etherium have been explained as virtual currencies and not securities (Source: https://www.investopedia.com/news/sec-chair-says-bitcoin-not-security/), the function of locking your currency into an account for a period of time, in exchange for interest, is almost undoubtedly considered an investment product and therefore a security under the U.S. Securities act of 1933. The text reads " The term ‘‘security’’ means any note, stock, treasury stock, security future, security-based swap, bond, debenture, evidence of indebtedness, certificate of interest or participation in any profit-sharing agreement, ..." etc etc (Source https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/COMPS-1884/pdf/COMPS-1884.pdf). What all this means is that as far as crypto.com operates within the United States (which it does as I have a confirmed Jacksonville, FL corporate address) it's officers have a legal fiduciary duty to act in the best interest of investors. This calls into question the legality of the decision to rapidly alter the CRO interest rates after investors had locked in currency. Clearly, such a large change influences the value of the underlying currency, and this influences the value of the investment made by clients. In particular, the law states "FRAUDULENT INTERSTATE TRANSACTIONS SEC. (a) It shall be unlawful for any person in the offer or sale of any securities (including security-based swaps) or any security-based swap agreement of the Securities Exchange Act by the use of any means or instruments of transportation or communication in interstate commerce or by use of the mails, directly or indirectly— (1) to employ any device, scheme, or artifice to defraud, or (2) to obtain money or property by means of any untrue statement of a material fact or any omission to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; or (3) to engage in any transaction, practice, or course of business which operates or would operate as a fraud or deceit upon the purchaser. " (Securities act of 1933 link above)
What is the token utility ? - Benefits in Card Plans : One of the benefits that AMN tokens holders will receive is discounts on card fees and plans. Users will be able to from AMN cashback when spending their funds with the Amon Debit Card. - Benefits in Transactions Fees : Users will benefit from lower transactions fees by holding AMN token for certain period of time. - Benefits in Customer Service Support Fees : Tokens holder will benefit of dedicated customer support based on the Card plan associated to their account - Cashback when using the Amon Exchange : Users will receive a cashback in AMN token when executing an exchange transaction within the AMN wallet. 4 Products : - Amon Wallet : Spend in EUR & GBP, exchange/track and earn interests in crypto. - Amon Interests : Earn up to 10% on your crypto and stable coin. Get AMN rewards while holdings cryptos. Withdraw anytime, no locking period. - Amon AI : Analyze historical performances. Analyze your portfolio risk. Get notifications on your investments. - Amon Card : Spend with Euro and GBP everywhere. Use the AI to support your spending. Use the card in +42M locations. Earn 1-3% cashback for every spending. Biggest Partners : - BitGo (https://twitter.com/amonwallet/status/1129419970897752066) : Through the partnership with BitGo, Amon secures the users funds. Bitgo is leader custodian provider in the crypto space and Securities and Exchange Commission-USA (SEC) regulated. BitGo works with Top level companies such as ZCash, Celsius.Network, Blockchain Capital and many others. - Sum&Substance (https://drive.google.com/file/d/16Z_wMxXYw_E-VXcdGIizZAsr_4ke0k_a/view) : They're the KYC provider through which Amon complies with the EU and Estonian regulatory framework. Sum&Sub technology allows Amon to meet regulatory requirements, prevent fraud and enhance customer confidence. Sum&Substance is also the KYC provider for big companies as Paysend, Bitcoin.com, Uber, BlaBlaCar, ESL and many more. - Celsius.Network (https://twitter.com/CelsiusNetwork/status/1097600650731577345) : A huge cryptocurrency project who is sitting around 150M$ MCAP (https://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/celsius/). - MKB Bank w/FintechLabs (https://blog.amon.tech/mkb-bank-invests-in-amon-via-its-accelerato) : FintechLabs is the technology and investment Arm of MKB Bank, the fourth-biggest commercial bank in Hungary backed by the government since 2014. A part from being Amon istitutional investor it helps to meet partners, institutional entities and supports the Amon team in the legal and financial matters.They're working on it with Microsoft, Google, IBM and many more.
UnionPay + Moorwand (https://drive.google.com/file/d/16Z_wMxXYw_E-VXcdGIizZAsr_4ke0k_a/view) : They're the card issuers for the Amon Card to come that turns compliance into competitive advantage for its clients. They provides digital banking solutions, electronic money services and access to card schemes along with unparalleled legal, regulatory and payments expertise.
Catch up of Cryptocurrency News #6 Week 10/08 - 16/08
Week #6 catch-up news is finally here!! By the end of this week we had seen the end of an accumulation period since May as we saw the market make a shot upwards. Its daily volume and marketcap increasing suddenly, many Altcoins especially in the defi sector pushing upwards. Bitcoin inched towards 12k and Ethereum jumped 12%. Chainlink also jumped to all time highs (twice!) and increased its market share.
We saw Nasdaq firm 'Marathon Patent Group' purchasing Bitcoin miners from Bitmain for $23M, a sizeable investment resulting in them potentially being the biggest bitcoin miner within North America.
US Federal Reserve reveals Building a digital dollar with MIT, a Central Bank Digital Dollar utilise the blockchain technology. In a multiyear effort in collaboration with MIT they want to build and test a hypothetical digital currency oriented to central bank uses.
Bitcoin halving event resulted in Miner Hut 8 (a mining corporation) 2nd quarter to plunge 67% to $6.9 million from $21.2 million a year ago. For continued profitability the reward of Bitcoin will have to outweigh the cost to mine. As we have seen, the difficulty in May doubled cutting rewards by 50%; because of this we should expect innovation within Bitcoin mining equipment to offset the difficulty challenges in the future.
On the other hand Novogratzs' Galaxy Digitial Holdings reports $38.5M in income for Q2. Its operating revenue growth is just over 24% for the first half of 2020 compared to the same period a year ago.
Further adoption within the Cryptocurrency space as 4 of South Koreas largest banks to provide cryptocurrency services, this is definitely more signs proving larger institutions want to get a slice of the blockchain pie and the technology is interesting for them (as mentioned above, more likely for a CBDC). Grayscale launches a Bitcoin TV ad campaign and increases their crypto funds as $217M pours into them.
Also fraud ICO 'Boontech' is charged by the SEC for $5M. This is good news as it helps to expose fraudulent activity happening within the cryptocurrency space and deter further happenings of scams and fraud.
Thanks again for the read and as always hope you get at least a little bit away from this! Cheers to:
For constant updates on the cryptocurrency space, it is a huge help every week to write these. So go and follow each of these for the updates! :) Also here is our discord link, Join the conversation though the many topics or add your voice too. We all have something to give and here we want to expand on our knowledge and help each other through these interesting times!
Round up of Cryptocurrency News #2 Week 13/07 - 19/07
So much has happened this week! We saw a capitulation point of bitcoin before bears took over and we saw the selling pressure push Bitcoin down toward the $9000USD mark then move back up above $9100USD So far it has been a stable hold, however we may see some more action within the coming weeks.
Widespread scamming within the Twitter-sphere, Youtube and other platforms as Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies may seem like fair game. Cryptocurrencies providing big payouts for scammers without the ability for reversals of accounts. Remember if something seems too good to be true, do some research or just plain do not respond/believe it. Stay safe and careful with your funds!
On the brightside, there has been even more adoption of cryptocurrencies as rumours of Paypal utilising cryptocurrency has been confirmed as they are developing crypto capabilities. In addition to this we received exciting news at the start of this week about Binance partnering with Swipe (SXP) and offering a debit card to spend BNB, SXP, BTC and BUSD. ( I will be keeping a swift eye on BNB and Swipe as its utilisation as tokens has just increased 43 fold).
Positive news for the Bitcoin network as its hashrate reaches all time high which helps to secure the network further even though mining profits have dropped by 50% from the recent halving. If you didn't know already the last Bitcoin will be expected to be mined in 2140 with its difficulty ever increasing and each time securing the network further. Processing units will have to become faster, stronger and most importantly more cost effective to continue to entice miners for the block rewards and further renewable energy practices.
Furthermore we can see Central banks and countries discussing and developing Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDC). Read more about it here https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/central-bank-digital-currency-cbdc.asp and check out some of the developments in the world above. This shows the popularity and strong nature of cryptocurrencies. As the saying goes "If you cant beat them, JOIN them".
Overall, very solid week full of adoption, animation and anticipation. Another post next week for a weekly round up! See you then but in the mean time join us at our Gravychain Discord. - DISCORD LINK: https://discord.gg/zxXXyuJ 🍕 Bring some virtual pizza to share 🍕 Come have a chat, stimulate a discussion, ask a question or share some knowledge. We are all friendly crypto enthusiasts up for a chat, supportive and want to help each other with knowledge and investments! Big thanks to our Telegram and My Crypto HQ for the constant news updates! - The Gravychain Collective: https://t.me/gravychain - My Crypto HQ: https://t.me/My_Crypto_HQ Important/Notable/Highlights:
Crypto exchange Coinbase readies landmark stock market listing, sources say
Coinbase Inc has started plans for a stock market listing that could come as early as this year, making it the first major U.S. cryptocurrency exchange to go public, according to three people familiar with the matter. The listing would need the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission’s (SEC) blessing. Were the watchdog to greenlight it, it would represent a landmark victory for cryptocurrency advocates vying for mainstream endorsement. Coinbase could pursue the listing later this year or early next year, the sources said, cautioning that the plans are still subject to change. The company has not yet registered its intention to go public with the SEC, but has been in talks to hire investment banks and law firms, the sources added. The sources requested anonymity because the listing preparations are confidential. A Coinbase spokesman said the company does not comment on rumors or speculation. The SEC declined to comment. While the SEC has said some cryptocurrencies may be considered securities and be subject to regulation, it has yet to issue specific guidance on most virtual coins. Many cryptocurrencies have struggled to win legitimacy among mainstream investors and a general public wary of their speculative nature and potential for money laundering.
VALUED AT $8 BILLION
One of the sources said that Coinbase, which was valued at more than $8 billion in its latest private fundraising round in 2018, is exploring going public via a direct listing instead of a traditional initial public offering (IPO). In a direct listing, a company does not sell new shares as it does in an IPO and existing investors are not bound by lock-up restrictions on when they can divest their holdings following the market debut. Founded in 2012, Coinbase is one of the most well-known cryptocurrency platforms globally and has more than 35 million users who trade various virtual coins, including bitcoin, ethereum and XRP. The New York Stock Exchange, BBVA and former Citigroup Inc (C.N) CEO Vikram Pandit are among those that have invested in the San Francisco-based company. It was one of the top beneficiaries of the bitcoin BTC=BTSP boom in 2017, a year in which the original cryptocurrency rocketed from $1,000 to almost $20,000. Bitcoin currently trades at close to $9,400. On Wednesday, Coinbase said it had hired Facebook Inc FB.N deputy general counsel Paul Grewal as its chief legal officer. Originally published by Anirban Sen, Joshua FranklinAnna Irrera | July 9, 2020 Reuters
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This is your ITB Media Daily Crypto Brief for Friday, June 26, 2020. In Mainstream Financial News. CNBC reports: Here’s what a new SEC chair could mean for crypto, according to Bitcoin investor Michael Novogratz A potential change at the top of United States’ main securities regulator could be a good thing for cryptocurrencies, investor Michael Novogratz said on Monday. Bloomberg Headline: Lobbyist Jack Abramoff Charged in CryptoCurrency Case, U.S. Says Jack Abramoff, the onetime Washington insider who went to prison in a lobbying scandal, was charged by the U.S. with illegally lobbying for a fraudulent cryptocurrency project. Abramoff has agreed to plead guilty to conspiracy and violating the Lobbying Disclosure Act and faces as long as five years in prison, according to a court filing and U.S. Attorney David Anderson in San Francisco. The Asia Times Reports: Australians can pay for bitcoin at post office Australians Can Now Pay for Bitcoin at 3,500 Australia Post Offices. Australian residents can now pay for bitcoin at more than 3,500 national post offices. The new service launched by Bitcoin.com.au is aimed at promoting cryptocurrencies to mainstream audiences, alongside established businesses and organizations. Wall Street Journal Headline: Lobbyist Jack Abramoff Charged With Fraud On June 25th, 2020, lobbyist Jack Abramoff and CEO Roland Marcus Andrade were charged in San Francisco federal court with fraud in connection with a $5 million cryptocurrancy deal. Abramoff has agreed to a negotiated plea of guilty. Forbes Headline: Legendary Investor Jim Rogers Warns Governments Will Have To ‘Eliminate’ Bitcoin Bitcoin has made its fair share of enemies since it was created a little over ten years ago. ... Now, legendary investor Jim Rogers has warned bitcoin and similar "virtual currencies beyond the influence of the government" will not be allowed to survive—and said the bitcoin price is headed to zero. In Crypto Publications headlines. Bitcoin Dropping to $6K ‘Golden Pocket’ Isn’t Bearish, Says Trader by Cointelegraph Bitcoin (BTC) could crash to $6,000 and still remain bullish, one trader claimed on June 26 as the largest cryptocurrency tested $9,000 support. In a Twitter analysis, the popular trader known as SteveCrypt0 offered an alternative to the bearish sentiment coming from markets this week. Trader: $6K is “healthy correction” Trio of Bitcoin Tokens Lures DeFi Yield Farmers to New Pastures by CoinDesk To recap, Synthetix is a platform for minting and exchanging synthetic tokens that mirror the price of other assets. On June 19, Synthetix joined the Ren Project and BitGo in creating a pool of bitcoin-backed tokens, for smooth liquidity between three crypto products that should be all but interchangeable. Plus, each of the DeFi platforms is promising token rewards in order to get more participation in the pool. This pool of sBTC, renBTC and WBTC lives on Curve, an automated market maker that has extremely low price slippage thanks in part to its specialization in stablecoins. CryptoNews reports on its front page: Blockchain Game Firm Releases Samsung Phone Featuring a Crypto Wallet Samsung has released three special-edition Galaxy smartphones in conjunction with WeMade Tree, the blockchain arm of South Korean gaming giant WeMade. The devices are customized versions of the Samsung Galaxy S20, S20+ and S20 Ultra, but come pre-loaded with WeMade Tree’s Wemix cryptocurrency wallet. According to a sales platform created for the phones, the most expensive of the three devices is priced at USD 1,329. This has been your ITB Media Daily Crypto Brief for Friday, June 26, 2020.
Cost basis/income tax calculations for BAT earned from ads
So, seeing posts like this one around here is making me concerned. If I simply have Brave Rewards enabled in my browser, and nothing more - I'm not registered as a creatopublisher, I'm not verified with Uphold, I haven't in any way cashed out my tokens - what in the heck do and don't I have to report on my 1040 to avoid getting stuck in a perjury trap? Every website and Reddit commentor seems to have a different answer on this. Some of the answers are more clearly in line with IRS guidance than others but in many cases there is no clear sense to be had of which is "more reasonable" than the others. Yet since I've had Brave Rewards enabled since mid-2019, it behooves me to "get this right" when I fill out my 2019 tax return, lest the IRS come down on me for being inconsistent with my answers should I have better answers to these questions in future years. The IRS is clear on one thing: cryptocurrency, in general, is valuable property and treated much like gold or other non-dollar capital assets (whether or not they're intended or used primarily as "money"). If your employer pays you in bitcoin (or gold, or a car, or a cow, etc.), you owe taxes on that income the day you receive it, whether or not you "cashed it out" by selling it for dollars. The IRS expects you to compute a "cost basis" for the property you received by determining its current "fair market value" in dollars, and that's what you report on your tax return. If and when you sell that property for dollars at any later date, that's a separate transaction, which may or may not incur a capital gain or loss (difference in value you received from the sale vs. what it was worth when you originally got the property), and that is reported in its own line on the 1040 (separate from ordinary income, depending on whether you held the property more or less than 1 year before selling it). So far, so good - that's all straightforward enough and well-precedented since it's the same thing people are used to doing for other capital goods such as stocks/bonds, precious metals, or real estate. It's even straightforward for people who simply trade crypto as an investment, like Bitcoin or whatever. In that case it's no different (tax-wise) from trading gold, and if you do it through a broker like Coinbase, Uphold, etc. you'll probably get a nice statement at the end of the year that breaks it all down and you can import into TurboTax or whatever. That's still well and good for those who (like many here) are trading BAT as an investment, like any other crypto. But Brave Rewards's BAT microtransactions are a whole 'nother level of craziness. If we're just using BAT within the Brave ecosystem - receiving it from ads and tipping/auto-contributing it back to publishers - does it ever enter the world of "capital assets" from my perspective as a user? If so, how the heck do I compute my cost basis? How on earth do I know how my BAT balance breaks down in terms of amounts received on particular days, which I absolutely need to know if I'm going to look up BAT/USD exchange rates online to compute cost basis information? Brave currently doesn't provide any sort of "wallet statement" showing transactions in or out of the browser on a date-stamped basis. I know that's planned for "the future", but that doesn't exactly help me for doing my 2019 taxes. I realize that Brave cannot give "tax advise" per se, ad nauseum. But surely Brave has done some thinking about the tax implications of BAT/Brave Rewards for ordinary users, versus just saying "have fun explaining this to the IRS" - right? We know that Brave can and does make legal statements about what they believe, as a company based on the advice of their corporate counsel, the legal status of BAT is (see e.g. this answer in the official FAQ). That, of course, doesn't guarantee that the government will see it that way (or that a judge will), but it's at least helpful to know "some professional lawyers spent a lot of time studying this and think the law says X", because that's a heck of a lot more than us randos on the Internet can guess at. At least if we have some consistent guidance, we can know what our story should be to the IRS and keep it straight, because otherwise we're at the mercy of whatever some auditor or administrative law judge might feel like. Maybe they won't go after most small-fry Brave users today, but you can bet they'll demand answers going back years into the past if one of those users were to become rich, or politically active, or otherwise interesting to the IRS at some point in the future. Taxes, after all, are the one area of the law where citizens are for practical purposes considered guilty (or at least, "liable to pay whatever the IRS demands") until proven innocent. (Sad, but too true.) My case is the simplest possible one for a Brave Rewards user: I'm a resident U.S. citizen who's never "cashed out" my BAT, I'm not a "publisher" or "creator", I haven't received tips, and I'm not verified with Uphold (couldn't if I wanted to, since they're not licensed in my state). I've only ever made four small tips totaling 40.0 BAT with the initial grant I got from the User Growth Pool when installing Brave (because it was going to expire); I've been hanging onto my non-UGP earnings in the hopes that some of my favorite websites/creators will eventually become verified and I can start spreading the wealth around in a more meaningful way than just dumping it on the 1 or 2 sites I visit that are yet verified. My questions are thus: 1) Is the BAT I receive from Brave Rewards considered to be a capital asset if I'm not holding it as an investment but just leaving it in the browser to be used as intended there (as a way of funneling ad proceeds from advertisers to publishers)? Does it matter if it stays in the browser and never gets withdrawn to an Uphold account? (e.g. does it then just qualify as "internal functionality of the web browser" and not a meaningful valuable thing I can put a dollar amount on, like a McDonalds Monopoly token with a "cash value" of $0.0001?) 2) If my BAT is considered a capital asset, how do I compute my cost basis for income (and future capital gains/losses) purposes? Is every single microtransaction an "income" transaction with its own separate cost basis that I have to track day-by-day? Or is income only realized when Brave deposits my earnings to my browser on the 5th of the month? Or does it only count if/when I connect an Uphold account and "cash out"? 3) Do I have to answer "Yes" to the new 1040 question asking "did you receive, sell, send, exchange, or otherwise acquire any financial interest in any virtual currency"? (I haven't touched any cryptocurrency in my life besides what I've gotten from Brave Rewards.) Is BAT a "virtual currency" when used strictly within the context of Brave Rewards, or is it something more along the lines of spendable XP points in a video game which have no value (for me, at least) outside that system? 4) If I have to do detailed cost basis reporting, is there any way I can get my Brave browser to cough up some sort of datestamped transaction history for my Rewards? I realize there's no official UI yet, but is there an internal database or something I can dump? (I'm a professional software developer so I'm willing to "get my hands dirty". Heck, I'd be willing to fire up a debugger on a core dump of the browser if that'll help...better that than being liable for tax fraud...) 5) If all else fails, can I escape this blooming mess by just turning off Brave Rewards, forgetting my wallet key (which I've never backed up), bit bucketing the BAT I've so patiently earned over the last year, and never looking back? Is it too late to do so since I've already received the BAT in tax year 2019 (regardless of what I might do with it in 2020, including thus throwing it away)? I realize that in practice I could probably do so and get away with it, but I want to be right with the law here. After all, even if I report nothing on my 2019 tax return regarding crypto, the IRS could always find my posts here on Reddit and say "see, we have proof that you used Brave Rewards in 2019"... Even if I'm a "small fry" at this point in my life that the IRS won't care to go after, I don't want to have a sword of Damocles hanging over my head for them to trigger if and when they feel like it later in life. Help me my dudes, you're my only hope! ;-) (And I suspect many, many others are quietly freaking out about this too...)
CNIT 40: DNS Security DNS is crucial for all Internet transactions, but it is subject to numerous security risks, including phishing, hijacking, packet amplification, spoofing, snooping, poisoning, and more. Learn how to configure secure DNS servers, and to detect malicious activity with DNS monitoring. We will also cover DNSSEC principles and deployment. Students will perform hands-on projects deploying secure DNS servers on both Windows and Linux platforms.
CNIT 120 - Network Security Knowledge and skills required for Network Administrators and Information Technology professionals to be aware of security vulnerabilities, to implement security measures, to analyze an existing network environment in consideration of known security threats or risks, to defend against attacks or viruses, and to ensure data privacy and integrity. Terminology and procedures for implementation and configuration of security, including access control, authorization, encryption, packet filters, firewalls, and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs).
CNIT 121 - Computer Forensics The class covers forensics tools, methods, and procedures used for investigation of computers, techniques of data recovery and evidence collection, protection of evidence, expert witness skills, and computer crime investigation techniques. Includes analysis of various file systems and specialized diagnostic software used to retrieve data. Prepares for part of the industry standard certification exam, Security+, and also maps to the Computer Investigation Specialists exam.
CNIT 123 - Ethical Hacking and Network Defense Students learn how hackers attack computers and networks, and how to protect systems from such attacks, using both Windows and Linux systems. Students will learn legal restrictions and ethical guidelines, and will be required to obey them. Students will perform many hands-on labs, both attacking and defending, using port scans, footprinting, exploiting Windows and Linux vulnerabilities, buffer overflow exploits, SQL injection, privilege escalation, Trojans, and backdoors.
CNIT 124 - Advanced Ethical Hacking Advanced techniques of defeating computer security, and countermeasures to protect Windows and Unix/Linux systems. Hands-on labs include Google hacking, automated footprinting, sophisticated ping and port scans, privilege escalation, attacks against telephone and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) systems, routers, firewalls, wireless devices, Web servers, and Denial of Service attacks.
CNIT 126 - Practical Malware Analysis Learn how to analyze malware, including computer viruses, trojans, and rootkits, using disassemblers, debuggers, static and dynamic analysis, using IDA Pro, OllyDbg and other tools.
CNIT 127 - Exploit Development Learn how to find vulnerabilities and exploit them to gain control of target systems, including Linux, Windows, Mac, and Cisco. This class covers how to write tools, not just how to use them; essential skills for advanced penetration testers and software security professionals.
CNIT 128 - Hacking Mobile Devices Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets are now used for making purchases, emails, social networking, and many other risky activities. These devices run specialized operating systems have many security problems. This class will cover how mobile operating systems and apps work, how to find and exploit vulnerabilities in them, and how to defend them. Topics will include phone call, voicemail, and SMS intrusion, jailbreaking, rooting, NFC attacks, malware, browser exploitation, and application vulnerabilities. Hands-on projects will include as many of these activities as are practical and legal.
CNIT 129S: Securing Web Applications Techniques used by attackers to breach Web applications, and how to protect them. How to secure authentication, access, databases, and back-end components. How to protect users from each other. How to find common vulnerabilities in compiled code and source code.
CNIT 140: IT Security Practices Training students for cybersecurity competitions, including CTF events and the Collegiate Cyberdefense Competition (CCDC). This training will prepare students for employment as security professionals, and if our team does well in the competitions, the competitors will gain recognition and respect which should lead to more and better job offers.
Florida State University's - Offensive Network Security This class allows students to look deep into know protocols (i.e. IP, TCP, UDP) to see how an attacker can utilize these protocols to their advantage and how to spot issues in a network via captured network traffic. The first half of this course focuses on know protocols while the second half of the class focuses on reverse engineering unknown protocols. This class will utilize captured traffic to allow students to reverse the protocol by using known techniques such as incorporating bioinformatics introduced by Marshall Beddoe. This class will also cover fuzzing protocols to see if the server or client have vulnerabilities. Overall, a student finishing this class will have a better understanding of the network layers, protocols, and network communication and their interaction in computer networks.
Florida State University's - Offensive Computer Security The primary incentive for an attacker to exploit a vulnerability, or series of vulnerabilities is to achieve a return on an investment (his/her time usually). This return need not be strictly monetary, an attacker may be interested in obtaining access to data, identities, or some other commodity that is valuable to them. The field of penetration testing involves authorized auditing and exploitation of systems to assess actual system security in order to protect against attackers. This requires thorough knowledge of vulnerabilities and how to exploit them. Thus, this course provides an introductory but comprehensive coverage of the fundamental methodologies, skills, legal issues, and tools used in white hat penetration testing and secure system administration.
NYU Tandon School of Engineering - OSIRIS Lab's Hack Night Developed from the materials of NYU Tandon's old Penetration Testing and Vulnerability Analysis course, Hack Night is a sobering introduction to offensive security. A lot of complex technical content is covered very quickly as students are introduced to a wide variety of complex and immersive topics over thirteen weeks.
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute - Malware Analysis This course will introduce students to modern malware analysis techniques through readings and hands-on interactive analysis of real-world samples. After taking this course students will be equipped with the skills to analyze advanced contemporary malware using both static and dynamic analysis.
February — The first ever cryptocurrency exchange, Bitcoin Market, is established. The first trade takes place a month later. April — The first public bitcoin trade takes place: 1000BTC traded for $30 at an exchange rate of 0.03USD/1BTC May — The first real-world bitcoin transaction is undertaken by Laszlo Hanyecz, who paid 10000BTC for two Papa John’s pizzas (Approximately $25 USD) June — Bitcoin developer Gavin Andreson creates a faucet offering 5 free BTC to the public July — First notable usage of the word “blockchain” appears on BitcoinTalk forum. Prior to this, it was referred to as ‘Proof-of-Work chain’ July — Bitcoin exchange named Magic The Gathering Online eXchange—also known as Mt. Gox—established August —Bitcoin protocol bug leads to emergency hard fork December — Satoshi Nakamoto ceases communication with the world
January — One-quarter of the eventual total of 21M bitcoins have been generated February — Bitcoin reaches parity for the first time with USD April — Bitcoin reaches parity with EUR and GBP June — WikiLeaks begins accepting Bitcoin donations June — Mt. Gox hacked, resulting in suspension of trading and a precipitous price drop for Bitcoin August — First Bitcoin Improvement Proposal: BIP Purpose and Guidelines October — Litecoin released December — Bitcoin featured as a major plot element in an episode of ‘The Good Wife’ as 9.45 million viewers watch.
May — Bitcoin Magazine, founded by Mihai Alisie and Vitalik Buterin, publishes first issue July — Government of Estonia begins incorporating blockchain into digital ID efforts September — Bitcoin Foundation created October — BitPay reports having over 1,000 merchants accepting bitcoin under its payment processing service November — First Bitcoin halving to 25 BTC per block
February — Reddit begins accepting bitcoins for Gold memberships March — Cyprus government bailout levies bank accounts with over $100k. Flight to Bitcoin results in major price spike. May —Total Bitcoin value surpasses 1 billion USD with 11M Bitcoin in circulation May — The first cryptocurrency market rally and crash takes place. Prices rise from $13 to $220, and then drop to $70 June — First major cryptocurrency theft. 25,000 BTC is stolen from Bitcoin forum founder July — Mastercoin becomes the first project to conduct an ICO August — U.S. Federal Court issues opinion that Bitcoin is a currency or form of money October — The FBI shuts down dark web marketplace Silk Road, confiscating approximately 26,000 bitcoins November — Vitalik Buterin releases the Ethereum White Paper: “A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform” December — The first commit to the Ethereum codebase takes place
January — Vitalik Buterin announces Ethereum at the North American Bitcoin Conference in Miami February — HMRC in the UK classifies Bitcoin as private money March — Newsweek claims Dorian Nakamoto is Bitcoin creator. He is not April — Gavin Wood releases the Ethereum Yellow Paper: “Ethereum: A Secure Decentralised Generalised Transaction Ledger” June — Ethereum Foundation established in Zug, Switzerland June — US Marshals Service auctions off 30,000 Bitcoin confiscated from Silk Road. All are purchased by venture capitalist Tim Draper July — Ethereum token launch raises 31,591 BTC ($18,439,086) over 42 days September — TeraExchange launches first U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission approved Bitcoin over-the-counter swap October — ConsenSys is founded by Joe Lubin December — By year’s end, Paypal, Zynga, u/, Expedia, Newegg, Dell, Dish Network, and Microsoft are all accepting Bitcoin for payments
January — Coinbase opens up the first U.S-based cryptocurrency exchange February — Stripe initiates bitcoin payment integration for merchants April — NASDAQ initiates blockchain trial June — NYDFS releases final version of its BitLicense virtual currency regulations July — Ethereum’s first live mainnet release—Frontier—launched. August — Augur, the first token launch on the Ethereum network takes place September — R3 consortium formed with nine financial institutions, increases to over 40 members within six months October — Gemini exchange launches, founded by Tyler and Cameron Winklevoss November — Announcement of first zero knowledge proof, ZK-Snarks December — Linux Foundation establishes Hyperledger project
January — Zcash announced February — HyperLedger project announced by Linux Foundation with thirty founding members March — Second Ethereum mainnet release, Homestead, is rolled out. April — The DAO (decentralized autonomous organization) launches a 28-day crowdsale. After one month, it raises an Ether value of more than US$150M May — Chinese Financial Blockchain Shenzhen Consortium launches with 31 members June — The DAO is attacked with 3.6M of the 11.5M Ether in The DAO redirected to the attacker’s Ethereum account July — The DAO attack results in a hard fork of the Ethereum Blockchain to recover funds. A minority group rejecting the hard fork continues to use the original blockchain renamed Ethereum Classic July — Second Bitcoin halving to 12.5BTC per block mined November — CME Launches Bitcoin Price Index
January — Bitcoin price breaks US$1,000 for the first time in three years February — Enterprise Ethereum Alliance formed with 30 founding members, over 150 members six months later March — Multiple applications for Bitcoin ETFs rejected by the SEC April — Bitcoin is officially recognized as currency by Japan June — EOS begins its year-long ICO, eventually raising $4 billion July — Parity hack exposes weaknesses in multisig wallets August — Bitcoin Cash forks from the Bitcoin Network October — Ethereum releases Byzantium soft fork network upgrade, part one of Metropolis September — China bans ICOs October — Bitcoin price surpasses $5,000 USD for the first time November — Bitcoin price surpasses $10,000 USD for the first time December — Ethereum Dapp Cryptokitties goes viral, pushing the Ethereum network to its limits
January — Ethereum price peaks near $1400 USD March — Google bans all ads pertaining to cryptocurrency March — Twitter bans all ads pertaining to cryptocurrency April — 2018 outpaces 2017 with $6.3 billion raised in token launches in the first four months of the year April — EU government commits $300 million to developing blockchain projects June — The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission states that Ether is not a security. July — Over 100,000 ERC20 tokens created August — New York Stock Exchange owner announces Bakkt, a federally regulated digital asset exchange October — Bitcoin’s 10th birthday November — VC investment in blockchain tech surpasses $1 billion December — 90% of banks in the US and Europe report exploration of blockchain tech
January — Coinstar machines begin selling cryptocurrency at grocery stores across the US February — Ethereum’s Constantinople hard fork is released, part two of Metropolis April — Bitcoin surpasses 400 million total transactions June — Facebook announces Libra July — United States senate holds hearings titled ‘Examining Regulatory Frameworks for Digital Currencies and Blockchain” August — Ethereum developer dominance reaches 4x that of any other blockchain October — Over 80 million distinct Ethereum addresses have been created September — Santander bank settles both sides of a $20 million bond on Ethereum November — Over 3000 Dapps created. Of them, 2700 are built on Ethereum
LOEx Market on March 28: After Rebounding, Enter into Second Bottom out Stage
Since early this morning, BTC fluctuated slightly, rising to a high of $ 6696 at about 5:00, and then falling back. It is now adjusted around $ 6300 as a whole, and mainstream currencies have fallen more and rose less. BTC is currently reported at $ 6257.00 at LOEx Global, with a decline of 5.36%. https://preview.redd.it/zrpno79wucp41.png?width=812&format=png&auto=webp&s=3e5a9c9c3975bce1a9f8031601f85cf026e4dc74 As expected in the analysis of the previous day's market, after the rebound, it will bottom out again. At about 7:42, BTC will fall rapidly, from 6600 to 6100. The strength of the contract market for short selling has increased. Talking about short-term currency prices is not my strength, but combined with recent news related to the currency circle, the short-term decline of mainstream currencies may indeed increase. The negative news I personally consider will be summarized below and my strategies goes here: Don’t move, a small number of positions should be sell high and buy low. If you are in the spot, do not operate in the short-term, especially those that have been deeply quilted. You should not hand over your chips now, but you should prepare for the “bullet” and wait for a large negative news attack and operate in batches. The black swan incident cannot be predicted, but we know the news that could cause a big negative market:
Because of the Room N incident in South Korea, the telegram (a telegram we are familiar with) that the SEC and the US courts have been focusing on because of the issue of the token TON has been implicated. As the leader of encrypted chat software, the world-famous vicious incident of Room N may bring public opinion. BTC, the designated payment instrument for Room N, may be targeted again by the United States. Under the environment of detecting banknotes to increase liquidity, the status of the US dollar may have been impacted. The United States took advantage of this incident to attack cryptocurrencies represented by BTC in terms of timing and motivation. The rest counties of the world may follow up on this behavior.
The FBI closed the dark web BTC exchange platform Deer.io.Deer.io (a BTC exchange platform providing dark web services) on March 24. The platform has 24,000 online vendors and sales of more than $ 17 million. The FBI has accused a Russian hacker of stealing private information and shut down its platform, Deer.io, which transferred funds through encrypted assets. According to a statement from the US Department of Justice (DoJ), the FBI closed the Deer platform on March 24. The U.S. Department of Justice states that "its suspected administrator, allegedly a Russian hacker Kirill Victorovich Firsov, was arrested and charged with a crime of attacking a U.S. company to obtain customer personal information. "On March 7, the FBI detained Firsov at JFK Airport in New York.
The attitude of Chinese official media. In March 15th, the exchange volume of the contract trades(being out of order to flush out trading volume), and several large exchanges cooperated to control the market was named. On March 27, the People's Daily reported that in recent years, high technology has increasingly changed our lives, new technologies and new concepts have emerged endlessly, but at the same time, various "pseudo-tech" products have been mixed. For example, the technology buzz word "blockchain" has been used by some criminals to speculate on "MLM coins" in the name of "virtual coins".
The Mentougou compensation plan that has been repeatedly delayed is more likely to pass this time. 20W Bitcoin and Bitcoin cash may be sold to them after compensation to customers. The most important thing is once this compensation plan is passed. Mentougou's 20W Bitcoin fork of BSV and fork coins other than BCH will be directly sold for cash compensation for customers who lost money in Mentougou.
Kin Community FAQ, Guidelines, & Ecosystem Directory
Kin Community FAQ, Guidelines, & Ecosystem Directory Kin FAQ
What is Kin?
Where can I earn & spend Kin?
Where can I buy Kin?
Where can I store Kin?
Why is the total supply so large?
Why isn't Kin on [xyz] exchange? When will it be?
Is there any update on [Y] announcement? Can you speak on [insert rumor here]? When will we be able to do [Z]?
How can I contact the developers / support staff of [insert app name here]?
How can I contact the Kin Foundation?
How can I track transactions on the Kin blockchain?
I still have ERC-20 based Kin (on the Ethereum blockchain), how can I migrate?
I heard the SEC is suing Kik, is that true? What does it mean for Kin?
How was Kin distributed at launch and how does it enter circulation?
I want to integrate Kin into my software project. How do I get started? Where is the developer community?
How can I keep up with the latest developments in Kin?
1 - What is Kin? Kin is money for the digital world. It can be earned and spent across an entire ecosystem of applications, thanks to the blockchain. If you don’t know what that means, don’t worry; you don’t have to. Kin is designed to be accessible by a broad mainstream audience- computer science degree not required. By bringing together developers and users of all kinds to build in a shared new digital economy, we can create a more fair playing field; one in which the developers and content creators that build these virtual realities are rewarded based on their contributions, not harvested for their personal data and attention against their will. If you’d like to learn more about Kin, here are some resources to get you started: · Kin Website: https://www.kin.org/ · Kin Whitepaper: https://www.kin.org/static/files/Kin_Whitepaper_V1_English.pdf · The Vision for Kin: https://medium.com/kinblog/the-vision-for-kin-6ee048a3a979 · Announcement of Kin: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5le2n230oTk · Introduction to Kin (by u/kyzermf): https://medium.com/hackernoon/introduction-to-kin-universal-virtual-currency-for-apps-ea6464225ffc 2 - Where can I earn & spend Kin? Kin is going live in a growing number of apps. To see which ones, you can check out the Ecosystem Directory below, or keep up with some of these resources: · via Kin Website: https://www.kin.org/kin-apps/ · Apps with Kin (by u/Neliss31) https://appswithkin.com/index.php · Kin Appz (by u/hepays) https://www.kinappz.com/ 3 - Where can I buy Kin? In addition to the ecosystem of apps available to earn Kin, you can also purchase it in larger amounts. It is currently available for purchase on cryptocurrency exchanges listed here: · CoinMarketCap Exchanges List for Kin https://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/kin/#markets Note that these are independent organizations and therefore only they can provide guarantees on customer service and experience, please do your due diligence in navigating and utilizing these exchanges. Also note that cryptocurrencies are inherently volatile, trade at your own risk. Kin is money for the digital world, not a stablecoin. 4 - Where can I store Kin? While using Kin inside of apps, make sure to create a backup of your wallet when possible. It is not recommended that you store large amounts of Kin in your user wallets, and instead seek out a more robust solution. There are lots of subtle differences to the kinds of wallets and how to use them, including trade-offs in security vs convenience. Make sure to do your research and be careful when handling your hard-earned Kin: Offline (“Cold”) Storage: · My Kin Wallet https://www.mykinwallet.org/ · Guide: Creating A Paper Wallet for Storing Your Kin Safely Offline (by u/TheRealChaseEB) https://www.reddit.com/KinFoundation/comments/bylk0creating_a_paper_wallet_for_storing_your_kin/ Hardware Wallets: · Ledger Hardware Wallets (works with My Kin Wallet) https://www.ledger.com/ Software Wallets: · Trust Wallet (Mobile) https://trustwallet.com/ · Atomic Wallet (Mobile & Desktop) https://atomicwallet.io/ · Guarda Wallet (Mobile & Desktop) https://guarda.co/ · Magnum Wallet (Web) https://magnumwallet.co/ 5 - Why is the total supply so large? Kin is meant to be transacted by a large number of users in manageable denominations, just like physical money. 6 - Why isn’t Kin on [xyz] exchange? When will it be? A healthy market for developers and users is essential to all stakeholders who want to build a vibrant economy around Kin as a currency. That said, a number of blockers have prevented further listings from happening; for example we needed to first have a unified & functional product and underlying technology before pursuing secondary markets. In addition to this there has been regulatory uncertainty surrounding the listing of digital assets in the United States including Kin specifically, especially since the filing of a misleading legal complaint by the US SEC. Due to this, the Kin Foundation is pressing on in other markets on behalf of the ecosystem to try and facilitate more platforms for everyone to buy & use Kin in their different ways. We do not know when Kin will be listed on exchanges, and anyone who does cannot say due to legal and security agreements. 7 - Is there any update on [Y] announcement? Can you speak on [insert rumor here]? When will we be able to do [Z]? While we believe in maintaining the utmost transparency wherever possible, we will typically announce things as they are ready and report on progress as it becomes pertinent, as to not create unfounded hype and adhere to internal strategies. While it might be tempting to seek constant updates, please remember that answering questions takes time, and everyone is busy working hard to actually build the things we are all excited to see. We will do our best to keep everyone updated on the things they care about. We do not comment on rumors and we may be constricted in our ability to communicate at any given moment on ongoing internal affairs that may fall within certain legal or strategic confines. 8 - How can I contact the developers / support of [insert app name here]? Please refer to the Kin Ecosystem directory below. 9 - How can I contact the Kin Foundation? You can email us at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) , or if you’d like to DM a specific representative or discuss something in an open setting you can also reach out to us and the community here. Here are some relevant contacts that represent Kin Foundation,Kin Tel Aviv, & Kin San Francisco in the community: Community u/benji5656 Communications u/kevin_from_kin Developer Experience (Kin.org, Kin SDK, and Kin Developer Program) u/therealchaseeb Blockchain (Core infrastructure of the Kin Blockchain) u/gadi_sr Ecosystem (High touch integrations with mature developers) u/rinatbogin KRE (The incentive protocol that drives the growth of the ecosystem) u/oradwe UX Research u/YonatanDub Kin San Francisco u/matty_hibs 10 - How can I track transactions on the Kin blockchain? Here are some resources for monitoring the blockchain: · via Kin Website https://www.kin.org/blockchainExplorer · Kin Explorer (by u/Chancity) https://v2.kinexplorer.com/explorer · Kin Bubbles (by u/kidwonder) https://kin-bubbles.herokuapp.com/ · Kin Transaction Visualizer (by u/sednax) http://bitcoin.interaqt.nl/kin.html 11 - I still have ERC-20 based Kin (on the Ethereum blockchain), how can I migrate? Follow the directions laid out here: https://www.kin.org/migration/ 12 - I heard the SEC is suing Kik, is that true? What does it mean for the Kin Foundation? It’s true. After cooperating with an investigation and multiple attempts to reach an amicable settlement, the SEC filed a disparaging and mischaracterized complaint against Kik for not registering the initial sale of Kin as a security offering. Kik is fighting back. They are in a unique position to take on this case, however, unlike the initial Wells Notice, the Kin Ecosystem Foundation is not named in the complaint. As noted by the Blockchain Association:
When we look at the Kik investigation, we can tell from the Wells Notice that the SEC originally looked at both Kik Interactive and the Kin Foundation. However, when the complaint was issued, it only focused on the offering of Kin in the September 2017 token sale, not Kin in the ecosystem today. The fact that the SEC investigated the Kin Foundation, but decided not to pursue a complaint is good news for developers, platforms, and others in the ecosystem who use these tokens because it separates the question of the token sale from the activities in the ecosystem since then. ("What the SEC-Kik complaint didn’t cover — and why this is good news for the crypto community")
The Kin Foundation sold 1 trillion (10% of total supply) in a token distribution event in September 2017 that was split between a pre-sale (487.80 billion sold) and a public sale (512.20 billion sold). Half of the tokens sold during the pre-sale (244 billion) are subject to a one-year lock-up period. Kik received 3 trillion tokens (30% of total supply), which vested at a rate of 300 billion tokens quarterly for 10 quarters, and the Kin Foundation received 6 trillion (60% of total supply). The Kin Foundation tokens will be distributed through the Kin Rewards Engine, which divides the allocation between network participants and marketing and operational costs for the Kin Foundation (6 trillion Kin has been split into 4.5 trillion for network participants, and 1.5 trillion for marketing and other operational costs of the Kin foundation). Kin Foundation tokens for network participants are schedule to be distributed to the network at a rate of 20% of the remaining balance per year.
The SEC has also received a number of applications related to the trading of virtual currency. For example, in March of last year the Commission denied such a request from Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss, owners of Gemini Bitcoin exchange. At present about 14 applications for bitcoin ETFs or related products are pending, according to a Reuters inquiry dated January 10, 2018. None have been approved. More privacy-focused virtual currencies, such as Monero or Zcash, however, do not appear as traceable with the IRS’s current technology.4 The virtual currency industry seems confident that this type of tracing isn’t just a problem for the IRS, but is substantially more difficult due to the use of different cryptography that can allow for hiding sending addresses or seamlessly aggregating ... The SEC’s Office of Investor Education and Advocacy is issuing this Investor Alert to make investors aware about the potential risks of investments involving Bitcoin and other forms of virtual currency. The rise of Bitcoin and other virtual and digital currencies creates new concerns for investors. Bitcoin plunges after SEC warns about cryptocurrency exchanges. Virtual currencies may be a bold new technology frontier, but marketplaces where you can buy and sell them aren't exempt from ... The SEC’s Office of Investor Education and Advocacy is issuing this Investor Alert to make investors aware about the potential risks of investments involving Bitcoin and other forms of virtual currency. The rise of Bitcoin and other virtual and digital currencies creates new concerns for investors.
There are more than 2000 cryptocurrencies since blockchain has given life to Bitcoin. They all have their own features and preferences. Why there are so many... Hey viewers, in today's video let's discuss something about : #What is #Bitcoin & The #Virtual #Currency #Explained -----... to find out more about how to make money with cryptocurrency 2020 you can check out: https://www.clkmg.com/supporthelp/yviveauto The video is showing how to ... Bitcoin is soaring to new highs. CNN's Richard Quest explains the roller coaster ride, and what's next for virtual currencies. The US Senate Committee on Banking met today with the Chairman of the SEC and CFTC to discuss virtual currencies and regulation. While many thought this might provide a deathblow to Bitcoin and ...